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Bio-inspired hydrogel-based bandage with robust adhesive and antibacterial abilities for skin closure

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  • ReceivedMar 31, 2021
  • AcceptedMay 31, 2021
  • PublishedAug 12, 2021

Abstract


Funded by

the National Natural Science Foundation of China(31771049)

the Foundation of key R&D Project of Jiangsu Province(BE2018731)

the Research Foundation of State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering(ZK201806,KL18-06,ZK201606)

the Six Talent Peaks Project of Jiangsu Province(SWYY-046)

the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province(BK20200682)

and the Postgraduate Research & Practice Innovation Program of Jiangsu Province(SJCX20_0408)


Acknowledgment

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31771049), the Foundation of Key R&D Project of Jiangsu Province (BE2018731), the Research Foundation of State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering (ZK201806, KL18-06 and ZK201606), the Six Talent Peaks Project of Jiangsu Province (SWYY-046), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (BK20200682) and the Postgraduate Research & Practice Innovation Program of Jiangsu Province (SJCX20_0408).


Interest statement

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


Contributions statement

Wang P and Pu Y designed and performed the experiments, and wrote the paper; Yang R and Shi T completed the data curation; Zhang W and Liu S revised and edited the paper; Ren Y and Li S validated the results; Tan X provided the experimental resources; Chi B proposed the concept and supervised this study. All authors contributed to the general discussion and revision of the manuscript.


Author information

Penghui Wang is studying for his Master’s degree at the State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, College of Food Science and Light Industry, Nanjing Tech University. His research focuses on the construction of biodegradable biomedical polymers based on biomimetic strategies.


Yajie Pu is studying for her Master’s degree at the State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, College of Food Science and Light Industry, Nanjing Tech University. Her research focuses on the repair and treatment of difficult-to-heal wounds.


Bo Chi is a research fellow at the State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, College of Food Science and Light Industry, Nanjing Tech University. He is currently engaged in basic and applied research in the field of biomaterials-medical-industrial transformation, including biomedical materials, advanced functional soft materials; regulation of stem cell differentiation on biomaterial interfaces, and the application of biomedical materials in regenerative medicine.


Supplement

Supplementary information

Experimental details and supporting data are available in the online version of the paper.


References

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  • Figure 1

    Design, preparation, and characterization of the adhesive hydrogels. (a) Schematic diagram of the chemical modification of γ-PGA. (b) Schematic diagram of the UV curing of adhesive hydrogels. (c) 1H NMR and (d) UV-Vis of the as-synthesized polymers. (e) Schematic diagram of the UV curing principle of the adhesive hydrogels.

  • Figure 2

    Characterization of the mechanical properties of the γ-PGA hydrogels. (a) Transition from the sol state of γ-PGA hydrogels to the gel state. UV curing times of (b) simple acrylic ester hydrogels and (c) γ-PGA hydrogels. (d) Schematic diagram of the compression experiment and compressive modulus of (e) simple acrylic ester hydrogels and (f) the γ-PGA hydrogels. (g) Schematic diagram of the tensile experiment and tensile properties of (h) simple acrylic ester hydrogels and (i) the γ-PGA hydrogels. Rheological properties of the γ-PGA hydrogels, (j) stress sweep, (k) frequency sweep, and (l) cyclic strain time sweep. γ-PDA hydrogels is the abbreviation of hydrogels prepared by combining γ-PGA-DA, Aa, and Am.

  • Figure 3

    Evaluation of the in vitro adhesive performance of the γ-PGA hydrogels. (a) Adhesion behavior of the γ-PGA hydrogels. (b) Demonstration of the excellent tissue adhesion ability of the γ-PGA hydrogels. (c) Adhesion mechanism of the adhesive γ-PGA hydrogels. (d) Schematic diagram of the adhesion test of the γ-PGA hydrogels. Comparison of the adhesion strengths of (e) γ-PGA hydrogels with different γ-PDA concentrations and (f) adhesion strengths of different hydrogels. (g)Photographs of the adhesive hydrogels adhered to different tissues (e.g., heart, lung, spleen, liver, and kidney from rat).

  • Figure 4

    Evaluation of the in vitro biological performance of the adhesive γ-PGA hydrogels. (a) MTT test. (b) Live/dead stain evaluation of L929 cell.(I, II) DMEM; (III, IV) γ-PDM hydrogels. (c) Antibacterial rate for E. coli and S. aureus. (d) Inhibition zone method to evaluate the inhibition rate for E. coli and S. aureus. (I, II) Acrylic ester hydrogels; (III, IV) γ-PDM hydrogels. Live/dead stain evaluation of E. coli and S. aureus. (e) (I, II) Acrylic ester hydrogels; (III, IV) γ-PDM hydrogels. SEM evaluation of the micromorphology of E. coli and S. aureus. (f) (I, II) Acrylic ester hydrogels; (III, IV) γ-PDM hydrogels.

  • Figure 5

    Evaluation of the in vivo adhesion performance of the adhesive γ-PGA hydrogels. (a) Schematic diagram of adhesion in vivo. (b) Schematic diagram of the adhesion behavior of the γ-PGA hydrogels. (c) Evaluation of the skin repair performance of the γ-PGA hydrogels at (I, II) 0 and (III, IV) 6 days. (d) H&E and Masson staining images of the wound healing sites on the 6th day after the treatment.

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